世界華語文教育學會 -- 韓童在台雙語學習互動情況【台北韓僑小學個案研究】
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韓童在台雙語學習互動情況【台北韓僑小學個案研究】

/Korea Children in Taiwan: A Case Study on Bilingual Teacher Student Interactions

作者
Author

金兌珍

Kim Tae JIN

關鍵詞
Key words

兒童雙語教學,第二語言習得,課堂互動,可理解的語言輸入,教師語言,外國式語言

Comprehensible Input, Teacher Talk, Foreigner Talk

摘要

  在21世紀,中文已經成為世界的重要語言之一。此時,在韓國學習中文的氣氛熱烈,造成許多韓國人到中國或台灣留學的風氣。在韓國有關中文的書籍很多,但是大部分的研究都局限於文學、哲學等。以教學的觀點切入研究韓國學習者如何學習中文的書籍不多,針對韓國兒童的研究更微乎其微。因此,透過這篇論文,我們嘗試了解中文和韓文雙語教室裡面的互動內容,以供在韓國的中文老師和在台灣教韓國兒童的中文老師參考。
   本論文以台北韓僑小學一年級中文課堂的教師與學生為個案研究的對象,蒐集了包括文件、深入訪談、錄音帶等資料,藉此分析了課堂互動模式與言談內容。本論文將探討的方向如下:
   第一,透過資料之分析,使用「IRF」模式,呈現出師生之互動模式以及其特徵。研究結果顯示以「IR」、「RF」與「IRF」為“有意義的互動”,其互動比率為75%。此外,最常產生的互動是「IR」模式,其結果顯示出這是一個「教師中心」(teacher centered)的課堂。
   第二,本文將「教師語言(Teacher Talk)」的特徵分成如下三個方面來討論:「副語言特徵」(paralinguistic features)、「句法特徵」(syntactic features)和「言談」特徵(discourse features)。「副語言特徵」包括教師的“語速”與“語調”。研究結果顯示課堂裡面,教師的語速為204.9字/分,但教師平時的語速為271.2字/分。這結果顯示教師在課堂中故意放慢語速,但上課內容之外的教師話語的語速則與平常的速度一樣。這點值得我們討論在兒童語言教學中,如何控制副語言特徵。就“語調”而言,教師使用的節奏,呈現出誇張的語調。此外,我們還探討中韓文使用的比率;教師使用中韓文的比率為95%(中文)比5%(韓文)。
   就「句法特徵」而言,我們使用「語句平均句長」(MLU)來呈現兒童語言發展的程度。結果顯示「I:R:F」的「語句平均句長」各為5.30、2.96和4.33。其結果顯示教師語言的長度會配合兒童語言長度作修正。從兒童語言發展的角度來看,韓僑小學一年級兒童的中文程度與台灣的一歲又九個(MLU=2.2)至十個月 (MLU=3.5)的兒童的語言程度相似。
   就「言談特徵」而言,本論文將它分成兩個類別,即教師語言的「起始」(Initiate)與「回饋」(Feedback)。「起始」再分成五項內容,即:提供信息(Informative)、指示(Directive)、提供線索(clue)、反覆練習(drill)和提問(question)。就「提問」部分而言,將它再分成「確認」(check)、「回應性提問」(Display Question,DQ)與「認知性提問」(Referential Question,RQ)來深入探討。「確認」再分成「理解檢查」、「澄清」與「確認」, DQ再分成「事實性」、「理由性」、「解釋性」和「是非性」。
   研究結果顯示,在起始中,教師最常用的功能為「反覆練習」(31.3%)、「提問」(26.5%)以及「指示」(23.3%)。就「提問」部分而言,教師最常用的提問是DQ(75.78%),其中比率最高的是「事實性提問」(55.28%)。
   「回饋」的部分再分成四項內容,即:「接受」(accept)、「稱讚」(praise)、「修正」(correction)與「評語」(comment),呈現的比率為49%、13.9%、4.5%和32.7%。從中我們看出,教師給兒童的回饋多半是正面的。
   第三,探討教師語言教學之特徵以及從「鷹架式」語言教學與「教學策略」的角度討論如何提供“可理解的輸入(Comprehensible input)”,以便幫助兒童學習中文。

Abstract

     In the 21st century, Chinese has become one of the most influential languages in the world. Today, learning Chinese has become a trend in Korea. A significant number of students have chosen to study Chinese abroad in China and Taiwan. There are many books on Chinese, but most of them are mainly in the area of Chinese literature or philosophy. There is very little research about learning Chinese as a foreign language, and almost none focusing on teaching Korean children Chinese. In this thesis, we will be analyzing and understanding the interactions within a Chinese-Korean bilingual classroom. I hope that this will provide helpful information for Chinese teachers in Korea and Korean teachers in Taiwan in their endeavors.

  The teacher and students in the first year Chinese class at the Taipei Korean-Chinese Elementary School are the informants of this case study. This thesis includes, documents (e.g. class handouts, exam papers and quizzes), interviews, tapes and other materials used to analyze classroom interactions and discourse.
   First, the Initiate Response Follow-Up (I.R.F.) model is used to present characteristics and interaction models between the teacher and the students. Findings show that by using I.R, R.F and I.R.F. as “meaningful interactions”, the interaction ratio will be 75% with I.R. as the most common interaction. This result indicates that this is a “teacher centered” classroom.
   Secondly, “Teacher Talk” will be discussed from three perspectives, paralinguistic features, syntactic features, and discourse features. Paralinguistic features include the teacher’s speech speed and intonation. Results show that the teacher’s speech speed in class (204 words/min.) is slower than the speech speed outside of class (271.2 words/min.). This indicates that the teacher purposely slows down her speech speed when teaching material related to the class. In this thesis we will discuss the issue of how to control paralinguistic features, an interesting issue regarding children’s language education. We will also be discussing the Chinese-Korean ratio used in class (95% : 5%) and the affects of the intonation of the teacher on the students.
   With regard to syntactic features, we use the Mean Length Utterance (MLU) to measure the child’s language ability. The results show that I:R:F’s average lengths of the sentences are 5.30, 2.96 and 4.33. These findings show that the teacher changes the length of her sentences in accordance to the child’s language ability. The language abilities of a student at Taipei Korean-Chinese elementary school (MLU=3.5) are similar to a Taiwanese one-year nine month old child (MLU=2.2).
   In this thesis discourse features (speech characteristics) have been classified as either Initiation or Feedback. Initiation has been divided into five types, informative, directive, clue, drill or question. The questions have been classified as checks, display questions (D.Q.) or referential questions (R.Q.). Checks have been divided into comprehension checks, clarification requests or confirmation. D.Q. has been divided into factual, reasoning, explanation, or yes/no.
   The research results show that the teacher most often uses drills (31.3%), questions (26.5%) and Directives (23.3%). For questions, the teacher most often uses D.Q. (75.78%), in which 55.28% are factual questions. Feedback has been subdivided into four categories, acceptance (49%), praise (13.9%), correction (4.5%) and comments (32.7%). From this data, we can see that most of the teacher’s feedback is positive.
   Thirdly, from the point of view of scaffolding language education and teaching strategies, we try to find out how to provide comprehensible input in order to help children learn Chinese.

內容語文
Language
中文
頁次
Page
61-120
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